Quaderni di Dipartimento [serie ordinaria – Anno 2017]


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ISSN: 2279-9559 (dal n. 1 al n. 157), 2279-9567 (dal n. 158 al n. 363), 2279-9575 (dal n. 364 in poi)

  • Paper nr. 424
Title: Labour Supply and Informal Care Supply: The Impacts of Financial Support for Long-Term Elderly Care
Authors: Bruce Hollingsworth,  Asako Ohinata, Matteo Picchio, Ian Walker
We investigate the impact of a policy reform, which introduced free formal personal care for all those aged 65 and above, on caregiving behaviour. Using a difference-indifferences estimator, we estimate that the free formal care reduced the probability of co-residential informal caregiving by 12.9%. Conditional on giving co-residential care, the mean reduction in the number of informal care hours is estimated to be 1:2 hours per week. The effect is particularly strong among older and less educated caregivers. In contrast to co-residential informal care, we find no change in extra-residential caregiving
behaviour. We also observe that the average labour market participation and the number of hours worked increased in response to the policy introduction.
JEL Codes: C21, D14, I18, J14
Keywords: Long-term elderly care; ageing; financial support; informal caregiving; difference-in-differences


  • Paper nr. 423
Title: Rural "Italies" and the great crisis. Provincial clusters in italian agriculture between the two world wars
Authors: Francesco Chiapparino, Gabriele Morettini, Fabrizio Muratore
This contribution aims to investigate the dynamics of Italian agriculture during the crisis of the Thirties, as well as related issues such as the role of some policies deployed to contain the recession and their consequences. To that end, the paper adopts a particular viewpoint based on the belief that Italy presents a large variety of rural environments, the result of its geography and history, and is characterized by different cultivations, features, conduction systems, productivity levels, and market orientations – in other words, diverse modes of production. Partitioning these "rural Italies" allows us to analyze their trends and prevents them from being bundled together in such a way as to compensate and sometimes even nullify each other. Moreover, the Fascist regime introduced active incentive and protectionist (even autarkic) policies to contrast the recession. Split into the plurality of its agrarian contexts, therefore, the country becomes a sort of kaleidoscope, through which it is possible to observe both the relatively wide set of effective changes brought about by the depression and the diverse impact of national policies.
Keywords: Crisis, Italy, (Agrarian) Clusters, Fascism, Yields
  • Paper nr. 422
Title: Winning Competitive Grants For Regional Development in Albania: The Role of Local Leaders
Authors: Elvina Merkaj, Riccardo Lucchetti, Fabio Fiorillo
In post-socialist countries, regional development and decentralization has been a fast process accompanied by strong deregulation and significant institutional
changes. Despite the reforms in Albania, local government units (LGUs) are often significantly underfunded, understaffed and depend heavily on grants from the central government. The focus of this study is the Regional Development Fund (RDF), a competitive investment fund which finances LGUs investments. We aim to analyze the factors influencing the LGU access to RDF funds, based on a survey with LGU leaders.
Political affiliation of the LGU leader, networking and the knowledge the LGU leader about the RDF procedure are important factors affecting access to RDF funds. Interestingly, however, the factors that correlate with the number of applications are different from those that explain the success rate of those applications.
Our findings call for a further institutionalization of the process in order to reduce the (informal) personal and political affiliation based influences in the RDF competition.
JEL Codes: H77, P48, P26
Keywords: Local government funds; political manipulation; network; leadership; Albania
  • Paper nr. 421
Title: Granger causality in dynamic binary short panel data models
Authors: Francesco Bartolucci, Claudia Pigini
Strict exogeneity of covariates other than the lagged dependent variable, and conditional on unobserved heterogeneity, is often required for consistent estimation of binary panel data models.This assumption is likely to be violated in practice because of feedback effects from the past of the outcome variable on the present value of covariates and no general solution is yet available. In this paper, we provide the conditions for a logit model formulation that takes into account feedback effects without specifying a joint parametric model for the outcome and predetermined explanatory variables. Our formulation is based on the equivalence between Granger's de nition of noncausality and a modi cation of the Sims' strict exogeneity assumption for nonlinear panel data models, introduced by Chamberlain (1982) and for which we provide a more general theorem.
We further propose estimating the model parameters with a recent xed-effects approach based on pseudo conditional inference, adapted to the present case, thereby taking care of the correlation between individual permanent unobserved heterogeneity and the model's covariates as well. Our results hold for short panels with a large number of cross-section units, a case of great interest in microeconomic applications.
JEL Codes: C12, C23, C25
Keywords: binary panel data, fixed effects, feedback effects, pseudo-conditional inference
  • Paper nr. 420
Title: Over education and the great recession. The case of italian PH.D graduates.
Authors: Barbara Ermini, Luca Papi, Francesca Scaturro
This paper evaluates the impact of the Great Recession on Ph.D over-education using data drawn from four annual cohorts of Ph.D graduates surveyed by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Over-education is examined through the definitions of both over-skilling and over-qualification.The results show that over-skilling is positively associated with the Great Recession, whereas the relationship between the crisis and over-qualification is statistically significant only when the estimated model includes interaction terms for the crisis and jobs within academia or R&D-related sectors. More generally, working on research-based activities and study experience abroad are always significant drivers to overcome any kind of job mismatch. Conversely, being self-employed increases the risk of over-education, casting some doubts on the satisfactory additionality of Ph.D employment trajectories beyond academia and research. Finally, in contrast with previous results for graduates, we find that socio-demographic variables do not exert a significant influence on Ph.D over-education..
JEL Codes: C2, I2, J24
Keywords: Over-education, Over-skilling, Over-qualification, Ph.D graduates, Great Recession